The first emergence of the game of Roulette is often cited as
being developed by the French Blaise Pascal in the 17th century.
However, modern Roulette was not developed until the late 18th
century in 1796. One of the first citations of a Roulette table
in use was at the Parisian based Palais Royal. There is an
earlier reference to the game of Roulette that cites its first
appearance in 1758 but 1796 was the first year when the game was
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Early Development of Roulette
This first Roulette table contained both of the house's
numbers (zero and double zero). It was not until 1843 when a
German casino eliminated the double zero in order to be
competitive with other casinos. By the 1800s, the game of
Roulette had spread rapidly through Europe and the United States
and it became one of the most popular casino games. When
gambling was made illegal in Germany in the 1860s, the single
zero Roulette table was moved to Monte Carlo. From there, the
absence of the double zero became standard in Europe when
gambling was made legal in many countries.
Before the popularity of Roulette in the United States, the Roulette wheel was actually part of the table with the majority of the wheel hidden by the table top. After large scale accusations of cheating by both the players and casinos, the Roulette wheel was moved to the top of the table, eliminating the opportunity for casinos to use devices under the table designed to stop the wheel in a given position.
While the United States, South America and the Caribbean islands continue to use the double zero today, most casinos and online gambling establishments have adopted the single zero Roulette wheel as the standard. The house edge on a single zero Roulette table is 2.7%. On a Roulette table that includes both the zero and double zero, the house edge is increased to 5.26%.
A maximum of eight players can play at a single typical
Roulette table but some casinos have tables that allow for more.
The players at a Roulette table play against the casino (or
house). This house is represented by a specific dealer (often
referred to as the croupier). The dealer is responsible for
spinning the Roulette wheel, collecting bets and distributing
winnings and ensuring fair play around the table. Each player
makes a bet at the beginning of each Roulette game by placing
their chips on the appropriate square or section of the table.
When all of the players at the Roulette table have finished making their wagers, the dealer spins the Roulette wheel and releases the ball. The wheel and direction of the ball must be spinning opposite one another. Roulette bets are still allowed when the wheel begins to spin. Once the dealer has announced that there are to be no more bets, all wagers on the table are final. When the ball has landed in a slot denoting the winning bets, the dealer will mark the winning bets on the table and clear the remaining wagers from the table.
There are two major types of bets that can be made during a
game of Roulette. When a player makes an inside bet, they are
betting on a specific number that the ball will land in when the
Roulette wheel has stopped spinning. The other type of bet,
called an outside bet, is a wager made on a larger group of
numbers. This typically includes bets on red numbers, black
numbers, even numbers, odd numbers and sequential groups of
numbers on the table.
The highest payout ratio on a Roulette table is any single number bet with a payout of 35:1. This means that if you bet $1.00 on the number 16, you will win $35.00 if the number 16 is the result of the spin. The lowest payout ratio in a Roulette game is the outside bet on either black or red. Both of these bets pay out at a 1:1 ratio. If you were to bet $5.00 on black and the resulting number was indeed black, you would win $5.00 on your bet. Remember that payouts also include the original bet as part of the winnings. So, a bet of $1.00 on 16 would actually result in you receiving $36.00.
In Roulette, you may also place a chip on any line on the table separating the individual numbers. This denotes that you wish to make a wager on all of the numbers that the chip touches. This type of bet can be made on as many as four numbers. To make a four number bet, simply place your chips on the corners of four adjacent numbers. You cannot bet on a set of numbers that do not touch one another unless it is an outside bet where the numbers are specified. The payout ratio of these combined number bets depends on the amount of numbers. For example, a two number bet pays out at a ratio of 17:1 while a four number bet pays out wagers at 8:1.
As Roulette is a game of pure chance, there is little room
for strategy and playing practices cannot significantly place
the edge in the player's favor. However, there are several
betting systems that some gamblers have had some success with
when playing Roulette at a casino. Although these betting
systems are often dangerous and do not always work, some
knowledge of how they work can help you to understand the
formulation of Roulette strategy. Consider the most common
strategy - the Martingale.
The Martingale is one of the most common Roulette strategies for beginners because it is easy to understand and implement. With the Martingale system, you stick to the outside bets on the table, mainly red and black. Begin with a very small bet on one of the colors and wait for the result. If you win the bet, place the same starting wager to begin a new series. Should the bet be unsuccessful, double the initial wager and place it on the same bet. Continue until the bet wins. Once it does, revert back to the original bet.
While the Martingale system may seem like a solid strategy with 50/50 odds and an easy design, it is important to remember that there is no way to predict how long it will take for the bet to be successful. Roulette spins can easily land on one color for many bets in a row. In order to maintain the system, a large bankroll is normally necessary. To see why this is the case, consider a series of nine unsuccessful bets:
Bet 1: $1.00
Bet 2: $2.00
Bet 3: $4:00
Bet 4: $8.00
Bet 5: $16.00
Bet 6: $32.00
Bet 7: $64.00
Bet 8: $128.00
Bet 9: $256.00
Remember, the ninth bet is cumulative, not the total bankroll required. In fact, to make it through the nine bet series, you would need a bankroll of $511.00, a large contrast from your original bet. In addition, you must make a tenth bet in the hopes of breaking even. This tenth bet, of course, may not be the last one required and would amount to $512, increasing the necessary bankroll to $1,203.
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